3.1 Literature Review
Forced labor has existed for a long period due to a lot of reasons, such as poverty, weak law, lack of education and supervision, and so on. Traditionally, self-monitoring systems and self-assessments were used in the supervision of forced labor in Indonesia in the past. For now, in order to eliminate forced labor and other forms of modern slavery, the government has allowed third parties such as International Labor Organization (ILO) for assistance and legal services (U.S. Department of State, n.d.). However, government supervision needs to be strengthened based on the current state as the phenomenon of forced labor has not yet been substantially eradicated. With the development of technology, artificial intelligence (AI) has been ultilized to solve modern slavery issues including forced labor, rapidly (ITU Hub, 2021). Therefore, for the future state of Indonesia, the government should do its best to eliminate forced labor with the support of a third party and the help of AI to track companies’ statements and behaviors. Nevertheless, the government may have its own measures on managing forced labor, such as what they did in the past, and also the companies’ leadership may need time to adapt to the use of AI in monitoring their companies.
3.2 Proposed Solution and Benefits of the Solution
To combat exploitation at work in Indonesia, a mandatory installation of monitoring technology or devices in workplaces is highly recommended. Forced labour is not solely an ethical issue related to the violation of human rights, but it also has a strong economic aspect behind it. Therefore, it is believed that strong government support is required in this case. The proposed solution has a focus on continuous monitoring instead of sample-based monitoring, in order to increase accuracy of the identification of forced labour offenses such as uses of violence, deception, and coercion. However, the implementation of the solution could be problematic when it involves multinational corporations. Due to differences in cultural backgrounds and legal regimes, there could be potential privacy violations and regulatory disputes among countries.
The solution is believed to mitigate forced labour issues in Indonesia through technical means. When companies involve self-regulation and are not monitored by a third party, they tend to attempt any way or use any means to maximize profits for their companies. When AI is used to monitor these companies and due to the transparency where the results are disclosed to the public, laws, regulations, outside pressure and public opinions will force them to comply and correct their illegal behaviors.
If the solution is effectively implemented, it could bring various benefits to individuals, the company, as well as the society. The most prominent one is the protection of the vulnerable group by the reduction of modern forced slavery offense occasions. It may also generate more profit for the company by officially recruiting workers due to increased efficiency instead of forcing employees to work. A transparent monitoring system could possibly eradicate both the company and Indonesian government’s internal corruption. Last but not least, it provides an equal chance for Indonesians to work decently in workplaces.
3.3 Development/Implementation of the Solution
It is believed that all workers are entitled with equal rights to protection and recognition according to the 1998 ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Works (International Labour Organization, 2022). Therefore, the implementation of this solution is embedded with a variety of good values. To start, the intrinsic value of installation of a continuous monitoring system is that it helps mitigate forced labor issues in Indonesia. There is also a social value where it increases public awareness about human rights, especially in privacy-related areas. It has a high emotional value with regard to Indonesian female workers, as 75% of the total documented forced laborers working overseas are women (National Agency for the Protection and Placement of Indonesian Migrant Workers, 2009). Therefore, the solution could possibly raise public concerns and sympathy towards the issue of forced labour, so that citizens can combat the problem collectively.
The development of the solution involves several steps with certain specifications. The core of the solution is to use modern technology to combat human rights and unequality issues with the installation of a pre-programmed continuous monitoring system in the workplace and a transparent disclosure to the public.
To be specific, the solution includes:
A device that is pre-programed with behavior identification detections and action and voice recognitions associated with forced labour.
A mandatory installation in workplaces and transparent disclosure to the public on a commonly accessible portal so the society can view the results/reports of each company.
Input and save individual workers’ personal identity information with their unique iris. In particular, it is highly recommended to use the blockchain infrastructure to store individual identity information, as it encrypts input values, ensures integrity of data and guarantees privacy preservation of each record (Sun et al., 2020).
Continuous AI monitoring by audio and video to detect threats and coercion within the company. In addition, workers may be enabled to provide anonymous feedback on the presence of oppression and attitude towards working in the company. When it is monitored continuously, the working conditions of the company will be recorded and employees’ working hours are supervised at the same time. Other relevant information will also be assessed and the results are to be compared with international standard levels to produce reports.
It is the most crucial step in the solution plan where the AI detects if forced labor exists. The determination is based on pre-programmed behavior identification detections and action and voice recognitions. It may report to the government as well as the International Labor Organization when the abuse and exploitation are serious.
Figure 2. A flowchart showing critical steps of the solution.
4.0 Limitations, Budget and Proposed Timeline
4.1 Limitations of the Solution
4.2 Budget Proposal*
4.3 Proposed Project Timeline**
* Use the following template for Budget Proposal.
Budget Item Amount Justification (Why do you need this) Evidence (How did you come up with this amount?)
**There are many templates for Project Timelines. One is Gantt Chart. Ensure that you include a justification for the different features of your timeline.
3.1 Literature Review