-What do you believe homeland security really is, or should be about? Do you bel

-What do you believe homeland security really is, or should be about? Do you believe homeland security does, or should, focus exclusively on the threat of terrorism, or should it be genuinely “all-hazards,” including other man-made or natural disasters?
-What similarities or differences do you perceive in the way Presidents, Bush, Obama and Trump approached the issue of defining homeland security?
-Do you have any sense as yet regarding how President Biden is approaching it?

Background: When we attempt to define terrorism, it can be a very difficult tas

Background:
When we attempt to define terrorism, it can be a very difficult task depending on a person’s viewpoint or position in a given society. The meaning of terrorism changes within social and historical contexts. The term terrorism is a social construct–groups construct a frame work around a concept, providing a definition through the meanings they attribute to the construct. The social context surrounding the term terrorism influences how it is defined – the historical, political, and criminological circumstances at a given point in time affect the way in which terrorism is defined. The definition can even become more complex in war zones when the media and politicians combine elements of al Qaeda and Taliban into one organization.
While there is no international standard definition for terrorism; however, the consensus definition involves that someone is terrorized and meaning of the term is derived from the terrorists’ targets and victims. Terrorism is a pejorative term, meaning that the term is laden with derogatory meanings and misunderstood. If we look at U.S. State Department view of Hezbollah, the State Department has designated Hezbollah as a terrorist group whereas Jordan views Hezbollah as a legitimate militia.
Early history of terrorism shows that terrorism was used to maintain power or to overthrow those in power. Sicarii Zealots, a Jewish group, is an example of an early terrorist organization that was active during the Roman occupation of Middle East in the first century. Their name came from the short dagger which they used to commit their murders, mostly against other Jews who were deemed traitors. The assassins were named Sicari (dagger men) by Romans.
The modern understanding of terrorism originated from the French Revolution from 1789-1799. The term used to describe the repressive actions of the French government against the masses. The meaning of terrorism soon transformed to refer to guerilla tactics in the Napoleonic wars. In guerrilla war, guerrillas use terrorist tactics against their enemies, and may terrorize enemies and their supporters into submission.
This provides us with a baseline of the understanding of terrorism and historical context from which it came. It is an evolving concept which probably continue to change in the future dependent of political and social perception.
Question:
With the support of at least one of the links below, as you examine the terrorism paradigm there are both domestic, international, and transnational elements, seeking to do harm to the United States and its citizenry. Identify which terroristic element who believe to be the most dangerous to the United States and why? There are no wrong answers per se and consider this an opportunity to use critical thinking to address a very important homeland security issue.
Links to Use:

Is “One Man’s Terrorist Another Man’s Freedom Fighter”?


https://www.chds.us/ed/items/20374
https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/19_0920_plcy_strategic-framework-countering-terrorism-targeted-violence.pdf
Required:
Your posts must be based on factual academic information (not personal opinion) supported with citations to at least two (2) academic references in addition to the course materials.
Please use the correct APA format in citing any source material you use.

Primary Task Response: Within the Discussion Board area, research and develop wi

Primary Task Response: Within the Discussion Board area, research and develop within 400–600 words an overview of Cyber and CBRN threats to the U.S. Be sure to include the following: Briefly discuss the main categories of CBRN threats and how they differ. Summarize the main aspects of the WMD Prevention and Preparedness Act of 2010. Discuss in detail the one method of CBRN attack that you feel poses the most serious threat to the U.S. and why you feel this is a threat. Support your assertions with your research. Briefly discuss the risks posed to the private sector and to government from cyber threats. Briefly discuss measures that can be implemented to protect systems from hacking, malware, or theft. Your response should include references to the assigned documents. Please be substantive and clear and use examples to support your ideas. http://class.coloradotech.edu/CbFileShareCommon/ctu/HLS340/Assignment_Assets/Cyber_Threats_to_National_Security.pdf http://class.coloradotech.edu/CbFileShareCommon/ctu/HLS340/Assignment_Assets/HR_5498_The_WMD_Prevention_and_Preparedness_Act_of_2010.pdf http://class.coloradotech.edu/CbFileShareCommon/ctu/HLS340/Assignment_Assets/Where_are_the_Countermeasures.pdf

For your final assignment, assume you are the emergency manager (EM) for the sta

For your final assignment, assume you are the emergency manager (EM) for the state, county, or city (Honolulu) in which you live. Building upon the analysis you have done throughout this course you are already in the process of preparing an emergency plan for your community. In this paper, you will prepare an emergency plan for your community that addresses the following: Summarize specific disaster conditions or actual hazard responses (such as a hurricane, tornado, earthquake, flood, chemical spill, or wildfire) that are likely in your community. Develop an assessment of your level of preparedness to handle the disaster conditions or actual hazard responses. Develop an assessment for the likelihood of future circumstances that could impact your community, Topics to consider: Climate change Population changes Technology changes Critical infrastructure Explain recommended actions and changes that would limit the impact of the hazard with mitigation and resilience techniques. Your recommendations should address: Planning considerations Equipment shortfalls First responders State and local government Business community Local populations Next, assume a major disaster occurred or is threatening your community and address the following: Describe how you will respond with regard to communications and coordination with other agencies. Describe how you will respond with regard to mobilization of resources and personnel. Describe how you will respond with regard to potential evacuations. Describe how you will respond with regard to emergency shelters. Describe how you will respond with regard to issues with water, power, and health facilities. Describe how you will respond with regard to communication with the public. Complete your paper by including the following: Develop an assessment of needed recovery efforts, as well as mitigation, and adaptations that may limit future damages, as well as improve response for future disasters. The Final Paper Must be eight to 10 double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the UAGC Writing Center’s APA Style (Links to an external site.) resource. Must include a separate title page with the following: Title of paper Student’s name Course name and number Instructor’s name Date submitted

The fundamental key to a successful response in any situation is effective and t

The fundamental key to a successful response in any situation is effective and timely decision-making. The ability to make appropriate decisions in a timely fashion often determines when an emergency does or does not become a disaster. Disasters often are the result of an emergency situation where there was either no advance planning or inadequate planning, or the implementation of the plan was incomplete or untimely. Yet, even the best plan is not effective if it is not implemented correctly. First responders provide direct assistance regardless of the nature of the event. They respond to acts of nature such as fire, flood, mudslides, volcanic eruptions, tornadoes, and hurricanes. They respond to events that may not be criminal in nature or may be a violation of safety or administrative law, such as construction accidents, train derailments, or building explosions due to gas leaks. They also are first on the scene in criminal events including mass shootings, bombings, and poisonings. First responders are there regardless of the motive of the situation. From acts of nature to no criminal intent, to criminal intent and to terrorist intent, first responders answer the call and provide assistance. Having an emergency plan is only one component of effective emergency management. That plan must be well developed and widely distributed to all the organizations and individuals who have a role in the plan’s implementation. The plan must be exercised in some form and reviewed at least annually to allow for updates in content, distribution, and response. In this assignment, you will outline the steps to successful response to and implementation of a comprehensive emergency response plan. Identify a specific type of hazard that is prevalent in your area, or use the one you identified for your discussion. Review the response protocols for three specific entities in the community. Examples include; law enforcement, fire protection, public works, the multifaith community, hospital, gas/electric supplier, etc. Analyze the response requirement of your selected entities as compared to their “normal” duties and responses within the community. Explain the similarities and differences between the response requirements of the agencies selected. Illustrate how these groups may provide hazard mitigation, and demonstrate adaptation and resilience techniques to reduce hazard vulnerabilities. Explain how these response requirements to emergency situations may or may not be different if the emergency situation involves terrorism.

Good morning Ma’am or Sir, I have attached a document that contains the instruct

Good morning Ma’am or Sir,
I have attached a document that contains the instructions for reviewing the article. Please read the document to so that the review contain all of the necessary information for the assignment. The document contains the citation so that you can find the article to review. Thank you for your help and assistance.

Background: Much has changed to the mission and scope of the Department of Home

Background:
Much has changed to the mission and scope of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) since its creation in 2002. It was originally created to address the issues related to terrorism; however, has evolved into a larger, monolithic entity addressing a myriad of domestic and international related to homeland security, national preparedness, cybersecurity, pandemics, and the list goes on. Like any good organization, when factors change in the equation to address problems they are facing, the organization must adjust as well to be successful in protecting the United States.
Question:
Examine in detail, the Department of Homeland Security Mission website (https://www.dhs.gov/mission) which provides six overarching homeland security missions that make up their strategic plan. Of the six missions articulated in the reading, which DHS mission to you believe to be the most important to protect America and the citizenry and why? There are no wrong answers and consider this an opportunity to use critical thinking to address a very important homeland security issue.
Required:
Your posts must be based on factual academic information (not personal opinion) supported with citations to at least two (2) academic references in addition to the course materials.
Please use the correct APA format in citing any source material you use.

Unit 4 – Discussion Board View Assignment Details for Unit 4 Assignment Overvi

Unit 4 – Discussion Board
View Assignment Details for Unit 4
Assignment Overview
Type: Discussion Board
Unit: Intelligence Collection and Processing and Relation to the State & Local Levels
Deliverable Length: 400-600 words (less than 10 percent similarity score)
Assignment Descriiption
Assignment Objectives
Assess the Intelligence Community’s (IC) capabilities and limitations.
Primary Task Response: Your first task is to post your own Key Assignment Outline to the Discussion Board so that other students are able to review your plan. Attach your document to the main post, and include any notes that you feel are appropriate. The purpose of this assignment is to help improve the quality of the Key Assignment Draft you will complete next week.
Part 1
Open-source intelligence (OSINT) is all information that can be acquired from overt collection from all types of media and government reports, various organizations, and through the use of the Internet. Discuss the following:
What are the pros and cons of OSINT?
Include a short assessment of how OSINT relates to other sources of intelligence, such as human intelligence (HUMINT), signal intelligence (SIGINT), image intelligence (IMINT), and measurements and signature intelligence (MASINT).
Part 2
The ever-expanding intelligence community (IC) includes many new disciplines other than law enforcement, such as fire and emergency medical services (EMS). Discuss the following:
Define what the emerging IC means to you.
Select 2 homeland security (HLS) and public safety disciplines, and explain how those disciplines can play a role within the emerging IC and overall information sharing.
Discuss the emerging IC as it relates to a multidiscipline approach.
Are there expanding intelligence needs? If so, in what areas?
Part 3 create an outline of your information:
For assistance with your assignment, please use the following reference and course materials.
Open Source Intelligence Methods and Tools A Practical Guide to Online Intelligence
by Hassan, Nihad A; Hijazi, Rami
Open Source Intelligence Methods and Tools A Practical Guide to Online Intelligence
by Hassan, Nihad A; Hijazi, Rami
Seduced by secrecy – perplexed by complexity: effects of secret vs open-source on intelligence credibility and analytic confidence
by Pedersen, Tore; Jansen, Pia Therese
The Tao of Open Source Intelligence
by Bertram, Stewart; Silverleaf, Peter
Open Source Intelligence for Malicious Behavior Discovery and Interpretation
by Huang, Yi-Ting; Lin, Chi Yu; Guo, Ying-REN ; Lo, Kai-Chieh; Sun, Yeali S; Chen, Meng Chang
(EXAMPLE of Completed Work for Reference)
Part 1 Open Source Intelligence
Although not regarded as the most efficient and the most effective way to gather intelligence and achieve mission success, open source intelligence is a very important way to gather information either for mission planning or threat mitigation against the United States or its allies. The military and other intelligence agencies in the Intelligence Community have been known to scour social media and other places on the internet to obtain information about certain adversaries. Below are the pros and cons of open source intelligence.
Pros:
Checking websites of adversaries whether they are foreign or domestic, could sometimes provide a notification of a gathering.
Websites and social media can also provide information as to if an organization is looking to recruit new members. Sometimes the websites will provide information as to where and when a meet up will be.
Utilizing government reports can help the individual researching a particular group establish a pattern of behavior or help understand their tactics, techniques, and procedures that could potentially mitigate a threat.
Cons:
Information obtained from open source intelligence can be purposely created to be false. This could lead to threat mitigating forces being placed in the wrong location to deter a threat.
Open source intelligence is fluid. This means that the information provided by a website or a government report could be wrong due to an adversary changing their patterns of behavior or their tactics, techniques, and procedures.
Short Assessment
In relation to the other tenets of intelligence, open source is a useful source to compare what an organization has gathered up against the other tenets. Although this will not prove that the information is 100% true, it does provide a feeling that the information could not be placed to be misleading. An example of this could be if an organization has acquired information about an adversary and has a good source for human intelligence, they can run the newly acquired information up against their source.
Part 2 Expanding Intelligence Community
The ever-expanding intelligence has been ever evolving. This evolution means that the intelligence community is able mitigate threats by being able to obtain more real time intelligence to protect against adversaries. The development of new technology adds as a force multiplier for all tenets of intelligence doctrine.
Two Homeland Security and public safety disciplines that play large role in the evolving intelligence community are law enforcement and cyber security/information technology. The way that it impacts the two is that, emerging technology can help prevent the loss of life of law enforcement officers and mitigate hacking from any adversary. One potential piece of technology that could prevent the loss of life of law enforcement could be robots that augment the police force in potentially dangerous situations. The way that evolving technology could improve cyber security and information technology is that information sharing among agencies and allies could improve, which could lead to more threats being eliminated or mitigated.
All of the current intelligence disciplines stand to gain from the intelligence community’s evolution. Technology advancements will help the individuals that utilize each discipline to better assess threats and hopefully deter them.
There will always be an expanding need for intelligence needs, due to the fact that the enemy will either change their tactic, techniques, and procedures or behavioral patterns as to how they operate. Since there are enemies that attempt to carry out attacks both kinetically and in the cyber realm, it is important that the evolution of the intelligence community happens across all disciplines of intelligence.
(EXAMPLE OF OUTLINE FOR REFERENCE)
Key Assignment Outline
Part One:
Memo:
Information sharing legal barriers
Freedom of information laws
Anti-trust rules
Agency sharing policies
Decision-making products
Informed decision-making process
Information sharing strategy barriers
Agency culture barriers
Agency sharing policies
Identified information-sharing barriers
Agency culture and policy barriers
The identified barriers mitigation plan
New information sharing policy
Change agency sharing culture
Information sharing strategy and global structure
Encourages greater information sharing and collaboration throughout the IC
Part Two:
Executive Summary
Goals and Objectives
Goals: Establish a new culture of intelligence sharing throughout the IC
Objectives: Maximize the availability and access to information by enhancing collaboration through policy creation.
Pros and Cons of Goals and Objectives
Pros: Establishes uniform policies for sharing, creates a universal system for accessing intelligence throughout the IC
Cons: Can be a complex process, the universal system could be costly, would require the full participation and cooperation of the entire IC
Recommendations
Outline milestones
Dedicate resources
Set timeline
Begin implementation
Part Three:
Strategy Descriiption
Agency and descriiption:
The Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) is the head of the intelligence community. The agency ensures that intelligence is provided to the President and other government organizations quickly.
Goals:
To improve collaboration between government agencies and other entities
Create a new culture that normalizes information and intelligence sharing amongst these organizations.
Structure and capabilities
Independent agency within the IC
Provides oversight for the IC
Staffed by officers from across the IC
Information sharing barriers
Agency culture
Agency sharing practices
Policies within the strategy
Write for Release Policy
Legal entities and barriers
Director of National Intelligence
Anti-trust policies
Agency specific sharing policies
Ethical and privacy considerations
Keep identities safe
Prevent privacy invasion
Keep data safe
Minimize data breaches
The intelligence cycle
Direction
Collection
Processing
Exploitation
Dissemination
Integration coordination
The ODNI
Department of Defense
References
Carter, D. (2009). Law Enforcement Intelligence: A Guide for State, Local, and Tribal Law Enforcement Agencies Second Edition. www.iafc.org/iCHIEFS/iCHIEFS-article/intelligence-the-role-of-the-fire-service.
Dillion, D. (2002). Breaking Down Intelligence Barriers for Homeland Security. www.heritage.org/homeland-security/report/breaking-down-intelligence-barriers-homeland-security.
Information Sharing Strategy. (2008). www.dni.gov/files/documents/Newsroom/Reports%20and%20Pubs/IC_Information_Sharing_Strategy.pdf.
Multi-Discipline Intelligence Analysis. (n.d.). https://ext.sharepoint.ctc.com/ctcComContent/StageMedia/WCCD4U/Multi_IA.pdf.
Nairn, J. (2012). What are the Disciplines of Homeland Security? www.homelandsecurityroundtable.com/2012/07/02/what-disciplines-associated-homeland-security/.

Primary Task Response: Within the Discussion Board area, research and develop wi

Primary Task Response: Within the Discussion Board area, research and develop within 400–600 words an overview of Cyber and CBRN threats to the U.S. Be sure to include the following: Briefly discuss the main categories of CBRN threats and how they differ. Summarize the main aspects of the WMD Prevention and Preparedness Act of 2010. Discuss in detail the one method of CBRN attack that you feel poses the most serious threat to the U.S. and why you feel this is a threat. Support your assertions with your research. Briefly discuss the risks posed to the private sector and to government from cyber threats. Briefly discuss measures that can be implemented to protect systems from hacking, malware, or theft. Your response should include references to the assigned documents. Please be substantive and clear and use examples to support your ideas. http://class.coloradotech.edu/CbFileShareCommon/ctu/HLS340/Assignment_Assets/Cyber_Threats_to_National_Security.pdf http://class.coloradotech.edu/CbFileShareCommon/ctu/HLS340/Assignment_Assets/HR_5498_The_WMD_Prevention_and_Preparedness_Act_of_2010.pdf http://class.coloradotech.edu/CbFileShareCommon/ctu/HLS340/Assignment_Assets/Where_are_the_Countermeasures.pdf

For your final assignment, assume you are the emergency manager (EM) for the sta

For your final assignment, assume you are the emergency manager (EM) for the state, county, or city (Honolulu) in which you live. Building upon the analysis you have done throughout this course you are already in the process of preparing an emergency plan for your community. In this paper, you will prepare an emergency plan for your community that addresses the following: Summarize specific disaster conditions or actual hazard responses (such as a hurricane, tornado, earthquake, flood, chemical spill, or wildfire) that are likely in your community. Develop an assessment of your level of preparedness to handle the disaster conditions or actual hazard responses. Develop an assessment for the likelihood of future circumstances that could impact your community, Topics to consider: Climate change Population changes Technology changes Critical infrastructure Explain recommended actions and changes that would limit the impact of the hazard with mitigation and resilience techniques. Your recommendations should address: Planning considerations Equipment shortfalls First responders State and local government Business community Local populations Next, assume a major disaster occurred or is threatening your community and address the following: Describe how you will respond with regard to communications and coordination with other agencies. Describe how you will respond with regard to mobilization of resources and personnel. Describe how you will respond with regard to potential evacuations. Describe how you will respond with regard to emergency shelters. Describe how you will respond with regard to issues with water, power, and health facilities. Describe how you will respond with regard to communication with the public. Complete your paper by including the following: Develop an assessment of needed recovery efforts, as well as mitigation, and adaptations that may limit future damages, as well as improve response for future disasters. The Final Paper Must be eight to 10 double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the UAGC Writing Center’s APA Style (Links to an external site.) resource. Must include a separate title page with the following: Title of paper Student’s name Course name and number Instructor’s name Date submitted