Choose ONE  REMEMBER YOU NEED TO REFERENCE 2 CLASS READINGS TO ANSWER ANY OF THE

Choose ONE 
REMEMBER YOU NEED TO REFERENCE 2 CLASS READINGS TO ANSWER ANY OF THE FOLLOWING:
1) Describe the 4 types of vulnerabilities discussed in the Coppola chapter 3 reading on Risk and Vulnerability. Explain the relationship between these vulnerabilities and disaster consequences using one other reading from this week.
2) Discuss 2 opportunities and 2 challenges of disaster management in developing countries as discussed by Kunreuther, H., & Useem, M. (2009) and one any other readings from this week.
Requirements: Identify the question you decide to answer at the top of your post. Prompt responses should answer the question and elaborate in a meaningful way using 2 of the weekly class readings (250 words of original content). Do not quote the readings, paraphrase and cite them using APA style in text citations. You can only use ONE multimedia source for your minimum 2 sources each week. The readings must be from the current week. The more sources you use, the more convincing your argument. Include a reference list in APA style at the end of your post, does not count towards minimum word content.

1.  Perhaps the most fundamental role of Congress as an institution is legislati

1.  Perhaps the most fundamental role of Congress as an institution is legislating, but passing legislation in a highly polarized environment is very difficult.  The filibuster is one of the primary obstacles in the legislative process.  What is the filibuster, how is it used today, what changes could be made to it, and should we make them?  Also, in the lecture, I note that Congress is widely disliked — so then why do its members almost always get re-elected? 
2.  The Founders gave limited powers to the presidency — and yet the office is today the most powerful in American government, by far. What are the expressed, delegated, and inherent powers of the presidency? What additional tools and resources do modern presidents use today? As presidents rely more on the unilateral actions inherent in many of those tools, does that pose a threat to the Founders’ ideal of checks and balances? Why or why not?
3.  What is “bureaucracy,” and why do we have it?  How is the U.S. executive bureaucracy organized?  How do Congress, the President, and the Courts control bureaucracy — and how effectively?  How might the executive bureaucracy be reformed?
4. What is judicial review, and how did the courts originally acquire that power? The competing philosophies regarding the exercise of judicial review — judicial restraint versus judicial activism: what are they, and how do they differ? The text’s authors note that, “…the philosophy of activism versus restraint is, in part, a smoke screen for political ideology” — what do they mean by that?

In your own words, answer this unit’s discussion questions in a main post (recom

In your own words, answer this unit’s discussion questions in a main post (recommended minimum 300 words) 
Assignment Details
Discuss the following in your main post:
What can be classified as a grievance?
Contracts will have specific steps for a grievance procedure; however, the basic framework includes a verbal discussion, a written discussion, a formal meeting, and arbitration. Discuss the importance of each step in the grievance procedure along with why steps cannot be skipped.
The Bureau of National Affairs has sanctioned a test to determine whether just cause is satisfied. What are the questions that must be answered for justification?

As we saw in the last section, on Congress, even though Democrats now control th

As we saw in the last section, on Congress, even though Democrats now control the presidency and have slim majorities in both the House and Senate, it is nonetheless difficult fro them to act on their policy priorities.  The numerous choke points in the American legislative process — the filibuster, in particular — enable Republicans in Congress to block many Democratic initiatives. 
In this situation, Presidents often turn to tools they can use unilaterally, such as executive orders; as the NPR article shows, President Biden’s use of them thus far is near record pace.  But is that a good thing?  What are the upsides and downsides of governing by executive order?

Respond to at least two posts of your classmates, with at least one cited source

Respond to at least two posts of your classmates, with at least one cited source each and a minimum of 150 words per response in APA format. Show points on why. I have attached both peer post and the required reading where the information was taken from. 
Required reading:
ATP 4-93, Sustainment Brigade, April 2016, pp. 1-1 to 1-17 (17 pages)
FM 1-01, Generating Force Support for Operations. Appendix A-1 to A-13. FM 1-01, Generating Force Support for Operations. Appendix A-1 to A-13. 

1.  What is government, and why do societies create it?  What is politics?  What

1.  What is government, and why do societies create it?  What is politics?  What are the challenges of representative government?
2. The United States already had a constitution, The Articles of Confederation, prior to 1787 — so why was a new one necessary? Please discuss the basic design features of the US Constitution: separate powers that check and balance each other. How effectively do those checks and balances function to protect American democracy today?
3. What is federalism, and how has it evolved in the United States over its history? What are some of the issues in American politics today that exemplify the challenges of having two distinct levels of government power?
4. What are civil liberties, and how do they differ from civil rights? Civil liberties fall into two categories: the four freedoms, and criminal defense rights — please discuss examples of current controversies pertaining to both categories of rights. In your examples, please elaborate on the tensions between the free exercise of our liberties, and legitimate government limits on them.
5. In 1776 our founding document, The Declaration of Independence, proclaimed that “all men are created equal,” a fundamental principle of American democracy — and yet we still fall short of equal treatment of all in America today. Please discuss de jure and de facto inequality in America, in terms of how various groups are treated. And what can be done to address systemic, de facto inequality in America?

Module 4 discussion board  You must post at least one response per topic: If mor

Module 4 discussion board 
You must post at least one response per topic:
If more than 60 percent of the federal budget is “mandatory spending,” what is left to cut? What economic goals do categories of mandatory spending support? What programs should be abolished or cut? Should any programs be expanded? If so, identify which ones and explain why they should be expanded.ief agencies such as the Red Cross?
In recent years, the American armed forces have been called on to perform duties that are more humanitarian than militaristic, providing support after the Fukushima disaster, in addition to funds for drought victimes in Ethiopia, COVID-19 vaccinations to countries who could not afford them, Ebola patients in West Africa, and earthquake victimes in Nepal. Do we have an obligation to assist other countries experiencing a crisis, or should that be left to private relief agencies such as the Red Cross?
You must post at least three responses (200+ words minimum for each post). Please see the syllabus for additional information on the requirements for discussion forums.

Discuss the following challenges: communication and coordination, decision-makin

Discuss the following challenges: communication and coordination, decision-making, transportation and logistics, special needs populations, politics, and legal issues or concerns. What do you see regarding the future and disasters or other human made act such as terrorism? Are we going to see more or less, are we getting better with all of this or not? Why?

Week 2 DiscussionDiscussion Topic Due December 9 at 11:59 PMSubmit your respons

Week 2 DiscussionDiscussion Topic Due December 9 at 11:59 PMSubmit your responses to the appropriate topic in this Discussion Area. Start reviewing and responding to your classmates as early in the week as possible. Be sure to be honest, clear, and concise. Always use constructive language, even in criticism, to work toward the goal of positive progress. Be sure to engage and reflect upon important text concepts and course notes within your responses.
In order for this to be a discussion, it is very important that we “converse” with one another by commenting on the other answers.
Important Note: Some of our material may be highly controversial, and while encouraging you to share your opinions, the facilitator has the right to step in if the discussion grows too contentious!! You may take issue with your classmates’ opinions, but at no time will this disintegrate into name-calling and personal slams. You are not here to change anyone’s mind, but rather to discuss, as rational educated adults, a multitude of issues.
You work in human resources in your organization and have been assigned the task of ensuring that your organization properly incorporates Affirmative Action policies into your hiring practices. Research Affirmative Action and prepare a 10-15 slide PowerPoint presentation outlining Affirmative Action and your plan to launch Affirmative Action policies within your organization.
Post your presentation to the Discussion Thread with a short introduction. Spend time reviewing other students’ presentations. Comment on at least 2 of your classmates’ presentations. Comment on differences in presentation, important talking points, sequencing of information, accuracy of content as well as overall creativity. Which presentation will be easier to present, monitor and enforce? Why?
Review the comments provided by your fellow students and answer the following questions:
• Do you feel that affirmative action has a place in today’s society?
• Do you support or oppose its role in today’s politics and our lives? Why?Submission Details:
Post your response to the Discussion Area by the due date assigned. Respond to at least two posts by the end of the week.

Is it hard to affect the political system? Why? Can you think of an individual w

Is it hard to affect the political system? Why? Can you think of an individual who had a significant political impact? What did he/she do? With what results? Choose a particular political issue you personally want to have an impact on and share with your classmates?