Primary and Secondary Reinforcers We use reinforcement to increase appropriate b

Primary and Secondary Reinforcers
We use reinforcement to increase appropriate behaviors. The effectiveness of reinforcement depends on an individual’s preference. While some items or activities are preferred for some individuals, they may be aversive for others. When using positive reinforcement, we must ensure that the reinforcers we are presenting actually function as reinforcers. Also, keep in mind that just because you may like or enjoy something, it does not mean you will respond to gain access. One may like doing puzzles, but one may not be willing to run five miles to gain access to a puzzle.
List five preferred items or activities that you enjoy.
Categorize these five items or activities into primary or secondary reinforcers.
Explain why each is an example of a primary reinforcer or a secondary reinforcer. What primary reinforcers are the secondary reinforcers (if any) likely paired with?
Speculate how they may have come to be secondary reinforcers (if any are secondary reinforcers). What were the primary reinforcers with which they may have been paired?
Establishing Reinforcers
This week, you will be introduced to types of reinforcers and preference assessment. You will explore conditioned and unconditioned reinforcers. It is important to understand the types of reinforcers because these play a vital role in behavior change.
Read or review the following:
Miltenberger, R. G. (2016). Behavior modification: Principles and procedures (6th ed.). Cengage Learning.
Pages 301–302 in Chapter 15, “Differential Reinforcement.”
Pages 113–114 in Chapter 6, “Punishment.”
Pages 73–76 in Chapter 4, “Reinforcement.
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2020). Applied behavior analysis (3rd ed.). Pearson.
Pages 263–271 in Chapter 11, “Positive Reinforcement.”
Pages 38–39 in Chapter 2, “Basic Concepts and Principles.”
Pages 329 and 330 in Chapter 14, “Positive Punishment.”
Carr, J. E., Nicolson, A. C., & Higbee, T. S. (2000). Evaluation of a brief multiple-stimulus preference assessment in a naturalistic context. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33(3), 353–357.
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