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Paper 2: Literature Review (including Abstract and Introduction) emphasizing synthesis and analysis of sources, inspired by and discussing a Psychological issue.
8-10 page MINIMUM (no max page specified)
APA Style Literature Review examining 4-5 peer reviewed empirical research studies (no meta-analyses or literature reviews) from credible journals
1) Decide on which psychology topic you would like to write your literature review.
2) Formulate a Research Question.
This will focus your research and aid you in starting your initial outline. This is a required step.
A research question is your limited topic + your research question (what you want to know) + rationale/significance of research (why you want to know). An example is below.
“This literature review explores alternative schools (such as Montessori, Waldorf, Free Schools, etc) to find out if the educational philosophies and teaching styles used in alternative schools increase student learning in order to determine if alternative schools provide children with better resources for learning success than traditional schools.
The limited topic is: alternative schools
The research question is: do the educational philosophies and teaching styles used in alternative schools increase student learning?
The rationale/significance is: Determine if alternative schools provide children with better resources for learning success than traditional schools.
3) Read! Look up peer-reviewed empirical research articles on the topic you have chosen. You are required to have 4-5 empirical research studies.
4) Summarize the works: As you introduce new works into your literature review, provide a brief summary that includes the author/s, year of publication, hypothesis, and purpose of research. However, avoid writing summaries like those in your first literature review paper (paper 1); these summaries are a few sentences that provide the reader with a quick overview of the article . These summaries will be synthesized smoothly with the discussion and not separated out from the analysis as in the first literature review paper.
Example: Unlike Jackson and Hewlitt (2010), Bell et al. (2011) studied children from middle class homes in California ranging in age from six to 14. These researchers wanted to determine if children from middle class homes eat vegetables on a regular basis, measuring regular as three times a week (p.2). Bell et al. hypothesized that these children would eat vegetables at least three times a week.
5) Each of the sources should seem as if they are having a flowing conversation among one another about the various methodologies, findings, and discussions addressed in/throughout the literature (studies) on the chosen topic. In other words integrate the sources throughout the literature review to compare and contrast the literature under review. An example of this is:
Phillips and Hawthorne (2008) determined that young children that had mothers who worked in the home were far less likely to develop addictions as teens and young adults. Rogers et al. (2005) agreed with their assessment and claimed that young adults who reported that their mothers worked from home (or stayed at home and did not work) were far more likely to be productive members of society and less likely to engage in criminal activity (p.52). These claims also aligned with C.H. Workhorse’s (2010) study on mothers who worked outside of the home and the effect on young children. In this study, Workhorse determined that children who grew up in day cares and with nannies/non-parental caretakers were more likely to attach to peers and thus engage in illegal activities (p.7).
6) Include your analysis on the sources being discussed as they answer your research question/s about the overall research discussed on the topic as well as demonstrate inconsistencies, similarities, holes/gaps, prompt further questions, etc. among the literature. Furthermore, this analysis should not be about whether or not you agree/disagree with the arguments.
7) Make sure you document each source correctly (see APA Manual 7th edition) as you write this review. Also be sure to format the paper with headings according to APA standards (review APA Manual as well as Galvan).
8) Include an APA references page (be sure to reference ALL the resources you used in your paper and NONE that you didn’t)
Remember: All APA papers in this class:
*are double spaced throughout
*use 12 point font
*have a title page
*have an abstract
*have an opening section
*have a conclusion
Introduction (use the title of the paper)
Sample Outline with headings:
Title Page (no heading)
Abstract (bold heading)
Non-violent Communication in Families (Title of the paper as the Intro heading)
NVC and Attachment (Theme 1 of Literature Review)
NVC and Problem Solving (Themes 2 of Literature Review)
NVC and the Development of Empathy (Theme 3 of Literature Review)
NVC and Mental Health and Wellbeing (Theme 4 of Literature Review)
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