How can we characterise the fairness of an algorithm, and how can ‘unfair’ or ‘biased’ algorithms cause harm through the decisions they make?

Essay question: How can we characterise the fairness of an algorithm, and how can ‘unfair’ or ‘biased’ algorithms cause harm through the decisions they make? Discuss with reference to one or more case studies.
-Use the sources i provided
-Explain relevant key words in the introduction to define the essay question
Sources
– in the files section
– https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1461444816676645
– https://www.propublica.org/article/machine-bias-risk-assessments-in-criminal-sentencing

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