Each response must be supported with at least 2 peer-reviewed sources and includ

Each response must be supported with at least 2 peer-reviewed sources and include 1 biblical application/integration (Part II). Note that the biblical application/integration cannot be more than 10% MUST BE 450 WORDS
respond to Victor Murphy
What are the independent and dependent variables in this study?
Concerning this Conceptual Model, the independent variables would be the General National Framework Conditions with its openness, Government, Financial Markets, Technology R & D, Infrastructure, Management, Labor Markets and Institutions, the Entrepreneurial Opportunities of existence and perceptions, the Entrepreneurial Framework Conditions with its Financials, Government policies, Government programs, Education & training, R & D transfer, Commercial and Legal Infrastructure, Internal Market openness, Access to physical infrastructure and Cultural, social norms and the Entrepreneurial Capacity of skills and motivation. These variables do not depend on one another but can still be manipulated.
The dependent variable of this model, or that which is dependent on that of all other variables and measurable, is the Economic growth through Gross Domestic Products (GDP) and jobs. The reason is that the climate of a country or region can impact economic growth directly. For example, geography can be seen as a variable influencing economic growth. “When examining the causes of large income differentials across countries, ‘first-nature’ geography is often considered a fundamental, deeply-rooted underlying factor of a territory’s growth potential. The implications of location and local physical conditions for transportation costs and the capacity to develop new economic activities are important and determine – to a larger or lower extent depending on the physical characteristics of a territory – the potential for growth in a given place” (Ketterer, 2018). If a particular region can accommodate expansion, it’ll be able to adapt, which will result in economic growth.
What are some of the intervening, extraneous, and moderating variables that the study attempted to control with its 10-nation design?
Examining the conceptual model highlights some of the intervening, extraneous, and moderating variables that the study attempted to control with its 10-nation design. Intervening variables define “the relation between dependent and independent variables that influence the effectiveness of consequences” (Alo, 2013). The intervening variables present are in the government and government programs under the General National Framework Conditions and the Entrepreneurial Framework Conditions concurrently. These variables shed light on the relationship between the government and its influence on entrepreneurship. Also, moderating variables are determined based on defining the relationship between factors that affect the business and how it runs. Examples of these in the case are promoting entrepreneurship, facilitating the availability of resources to women committing to long-term postsecondary education and training, and creating a culture that validates and encourages entrepreneurship. Lastly, for the extraneous variables, the research portion of the GEM study suggest that there is a lack of control over these variable. This is true because they will have little effect on the study results. For example, the selection method of the one-thousand adults may affect the final results, but not as great as the way the study was conducted after selection.
Can you do a causal study without controlling intervening, extraneous, and moderating variables?
It is possible to do a case study without controlling the intervening, extraneous, and moderating variables; however, the designed results may not be conducive to a specific outcome. God states that we “examine everything carefully; hold fast to that which is good” (11 bible, n.d.). By controlling and examining the variables of a study, the researcher can manipulate certain variables to produce different results to find the best solution. For example, in a 2020 study on the relationship between intellectual capital and corporate performance, technological intensity was the moderating variable used to provide evidence to conclude whether or not there is a correlation (Palazzi, 2020). Ultimately, the result was inconclusive, and the authors explained the limitations during the data gathering process. If technological intensity was not manipulated as the moderating variable in the study, the researchers would not have been able to reach their conclusion.
What is the impact on study results of using national experts (key informants) to identify and weigh entrepreneurial framework conditions?
The impact using national experts from the ten selected countries had on the study was to bring expert knowledge to critical issues from their respective nations. Key informants “can provide researchers an ‘in’ with a community because of their comprehensive knowledge and ability to communicate the community’s culture. In an organization, key informants may be leaders, managers, or elected representatives that can share information about the development, history, and establishment of an organization’s mission and vision” (Flemming, 2022). The key informants each had an hour-long interview and a detailed twelve-page questionnaire they all had to complete. Given the diversity in framework conditions, entrepreneurial sectors, business dynamics, and economic growth, the experts were able to compensate for the research’s lack of control of the extraneous factors by providing data for these fields.
Can you do a causal study when much of the primary data collected is descriptive opinion and ordinal or interval data?
You can do a casual study when much of the primary data is collected from descriptive opinion and ordinal or interval data. However, researchers would monitor the case study over a long period because of the variables involved. When conducting quantitative research, “specific purposes should drive the production, and use of quantitative research, not ready-made formulas applied without attention to purposes and their relations” (Zyphur, 2017). All aspects that can change the model have to be accounted for.
References
11 bible verses about research. 11 Bible verses about Research. (n.d.). Retrieved May 19, 2022,
from https://bible.knowing-jesus.com/topics/Research
Aló, R.,M., & Cançado, C.,R.X. (2013). TECHNICAL TERMS, INTERVENING VARIABLES,
AND THE LIMITS OF THE CONCEPT OF MOTIVATION: A RESPONSE TO
WHELAN AND BARNES-HOLMES’S (2013) COMMENTARY. The Psychological
Record, 63(3), 661-666. https://doi.org/10.11133/j.tpr.2013.63.3.018
Fleming, W., King, B., Robinson, K., Wade, E., Erickson, B., Delie, J., de Ycaza, R., Trimbach,
D., Spalding, A., & Biedenweg, K. (2022). Is there no “I” in team? Potential bias in key
informant interviews when asking individuals to represent a collective perspective. PLoS
One, 17(1)https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0261452
Ketterer, T. D., & Rodríguez-Pose, A. (2018). Institutions vs. ‘first-nature’ geography: What
drives economic growth in Europe’s regions?. Papers in Regional Science. 97: S25– S62.
doi: 10.1111/pirs.12237.
Palazzi, F., Sgrò, F., Ciambotti, M., & Bontis, N. (2020). Technological intensity as a
moderating variable for the intellectual capital–performance relationship. Knowl Process
Manag. 27: 3– 14. https://doi-org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1002/kpm.1617
Zyphur, M. J., & Pierides, D. C. (2017). Is Quantitative Research Ethical? Tools for Ethically
Practicing, Evaluating, and Using Quantitative Research. Journal of Business

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