Humans have modified the local climate within society through anthropogenic activities since the birth of civilization. An important and well-studied consequence of such anthropogenic influence is the warmer urban air temperatures compared to the surrounding rural areas. This phenomenon is called the urban heat island (UHI) effect, which is most commonly defined as the temperature difference between urban and rural areas. Theoretically all urban sprawls have measurable urban heat islands, including Toronto, ON. There are two questions for this participation. Please submit only one file that contains the answers to both questions in this participation. Submit a word or pdf document please.